PB, PBO2, H2SO4; some cells have selenium, calcium, or other additives in the plates for their performance characteristics.
Batteries that are filled with a liquid electrolyte and the cells are vented to atmospheric pressure through a vent cap.
Both Lead-Acid and Ni-Cad batteries are used in substation applications.
A stationary battery is a battery system that is permanently installed in a fixed racking system for providing DC power to equipment in the event of an AC electrical failure. Typically these systems are 120 VDC.
Battery racks must meet the seismic requirements of the location where they will be installed.
Smart chargers are those with built-in features that adjust the charger output for operating conditions such as temperature compensation, or those capable of charging different types of batteries from a single charger.
A sealed battery which has a pressure relief valve capable of opening to relieve over pressure due to overcharging.
All batteries produce hydrogen as part of the charging process. Hydrogen production is greatly increased when the cell reaches the gassing voltage, which is normally about 2.33 volts per cell for Lead-Acid and 1.42 volts per cell for Ni-Cad.
Any system or set of batteries that are going to be on continuous charge in any unmanned area for a period of time.
Typically, a substation battery is used for supplying DC power to emergency safety circuits, emergency DC loads, pumps etc. in the event of a loss of normal AC power.
Temperature and hydrogen concentration are typically what are monitored.
That the design specifications for that product are that the battery has a projected life span of 10 years of constant float service without any discharge cycles.
H2SO4 – Diluted sulfuric acid.
Eye wash stations are required in all charging areas, designated battery rooms, and whereever else battery service is performed.
During charge, both Oxygen and Hydrogen are released from the plates. In addition, Hydrogen Sulfide can be produced during overcharging or gassing and forming charges of batteries.
If a battery is subjected to contaminated electrolyte, it may also produce chlorine gas, arsenic or other hazardous gases due to the contaminants.
"Monobloc" is a term used to describe a number of battery cells formed into a single molded case. Examples are 3 cells in a 6 volt battery or 6 cells in a 12 volt car battery.
A resistive device which can be connected to an individual battery, and/or entire battery system, and draws a load current from the battery.
Used in motive power industry, a washing system is a fixed or portable unit that is used to wash dirt and acid build-up off the tops and surfaces of the battery.
A Charger / Rectifier is any electronic device or component that is used to convert AC single or 3 phase electricity into a constant regulated DC voltage.
DC Plant refers to a Battery System installed in a fixed location. It is comprised of the Battery, Charger, Isolation Breakers, and other controls needed to operate the system.
Internal resistance testers will measure individual cells; load banks will test entire batteries.
High rate batteries are designed and built to provide short duration, high discharge rates. They are constructed of a larger number of thinner plates to develop high current ratings for short durations, typically less than 15 minutes.
An electronic device mounted at the highest point in a battery room that will monitor the percentage of Hydrogen gas volume in the air surrounding the detector.
The actual sensing or measuring device in a hydrogen gas detector.
An exhaust fan that must be manually switched on to get exhaust air flow in the UPS room.
A plate in the battery is where the active materials are manufactured which react with the electrolyte to form the chemical reactions for charge and discharge.
Hydrogen concentrations should never be allowed to exceed 1% in concentration. Hydrogen gas can be explosive in concentrations as low as 4%.
"Sandwich style" refers to the assembly of the plates in stacks of alternating positive and negative plates separated by matting or insulated separator materials.
There is no such thing as a three phase battery. "3-phase" is a reference to three phase AC power.
Under Voltage Release, a device which will cause the battery disconnect to open should the DC voltage supplied to the UV coil not be present.
Powersafe SBS Series 15 Amp Hour Battery manufacturered by Enersys.
AT 10 is a Single Phase AC Charger with optional features.
Batteries are rated in either Watts per cell or in Ah. Run time is based upon the load demand and how long that specific battery will supply that load current until the battery reaches a set cut off voltage.
A load test of the entire battery system, based upon the manufacturer's ratings, to determine what percentage of capacity the system operates at present time.
A filter and deionizing system that filters out impurities from water passing through it.
Install H2 detectors.
A forced air ventilation system used to remove gases produced during battery charging from the charging area or room.
A methodical inspection and test procedure performed by the manufacturer to ensure the complete operation and integrity of the system.
The proper connection of batteries into strings and parallel banks.
Replacement of a battery system with either new batteries or batteries rated for new requirements.
Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries constructed with fiber plate technology.
AGM; it is a valve regulated lead acid battery where the acid is absorbed in a glass matting material placed between the plates.
A battery which is designed for short duration high discharge current draws.
Plates are made of Nickel and Cadmium. An electrolyte of Potassium Hydroxide is used.
Active material of battery plates is pocketed.
A Powersafe SBS model battery manufactured by Enersys.
A Ni-Cd battery that is not vented and uses the principles of recombination like VRLA batteries do.
Any battery that is used for storing DC energy as a reserve source of power.
The acid is suspended in a gel, which means the gel or paste aids in keeping the acid in contact with the plates.
Typically 24 or 48 volt DC battery systems designed for long duration high amp draw protection for loss of normal AC power.
Maintenance-free, does not require make up of electrolyte over the life of the battery.
To provide DC voltage and current to load equipment during a loss of normal AC power sources.
Sealed VRLA Battery rated for 600AH (amp hours).
Varies with the rating of the battery.
Plate construction is formed of tubes filled with active material. The tubular shapes give an increased surface area which allows more acid contact area and higher ratings for the same size battery.
A method of plate formation in which the active materials are encapsulated in tubes.
A rack system where batteries are installed in two separate rows, one atop the other separated by space for maintenance of the lower row.
Optimal temperature is 77 F. Range is 68 to 84 degrees outside of this range, charge voltage must be compensated for temperature.
A specific current is drawn from the battery to determine if it will supply its rated capacity.
The number of Amps a battery is rated for a given number of hours.